Steps to Help Your New Business to Succeed

Although starting a business is hard regardless of your background, BIPOC-owned businesses often face additional challenges. What’s more, the pandemic has made it even harder, having a disproportionately negative effect on minority-owned businesses. However, it is possible to achieve success during these hard times, and Hella Cocktail’s achievements are a testament to that.

Pinkard listed nine steps for BIPOC business owners to follow both during and after the pandemic to improve their chances of long-term business success:

Be open to pivoting your business. Keep a pulse on how consumer behavior is changing so you can pivot your business to stay relevant. Your business can be sustainable only when your brand can authentically and continually adjust its offerings or services to meet and align with the needs and demands of your customers.

Expand your network, and continually ask for advice. Mentorship is vital to the success of budding BIPOC-owned businesses, because it helps to combat overarching inequalities in the working world. Your networks become your personal and business champions throughout your journey.

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Entrepreneurship is a journey, not a moment. Realize that the pathway will have twists and turns and may result in a slightly or completely different version of your vision. If you are OK with that, lock in and enjoy the ride. If not, hop off and try something new. Either way, you must stay true to your personal principles and values and remain passionate about your work.

Leverage funding websites and government resources. There are resources that can begin to open specific strategic doors of funding or business development opportunities, and many of these – such as The Minority Business Development Agency (MBDA) and The Minority Supplier Development Council (MSDC) – are intended for BIPOC businesses. It’s worth your time to understand where networks and opportunities exist even if you’re not ready to engage in them just yet.

Support other Black-owned businesses. Small businesses and entrepreneurs have been longtime wealth builders in society. By supporting more Black-owned businesses, you can create more opportunities for meaningful savings, property ownership, credit building and generational wealth.

What is A Business Pipe?

A business channel is a device used to follow leads as they progress from possibilities to clients. By analyzing your business pipe, you can enhance your deals and advertising endeavors. A business pipe comprises of three portions: top, center, and base (or high, center, and low). This article is for private companies that need to work on their deals and showcasing techniques.

Regardless of whether you have a blocks and cement or online business, you need to make a business channel to draw in and convert guests into clients. The critical objective of your business pipe is to move individuals through the various phases of the business cycle until they are prepared to purchase your items or administrations.

A business pipe portrays the means an individual takes while heading to turning into your client. It comprises of three sections:

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The highest point of the pipe is the showcasing that draws in possibilities to your business (e.g., the publicizing on your actual retail facade, or the presentation page of your site).

The center of the pipe includes every one of the pieces of your business cycle before the deal (e.g., individuals taking a stab at attire in your store, or site guests finding out about the advantages of your items).

The lower part of the pipe is the last buy (e.g., clients paying for garments at checkout, or site clients entering their charge card information to finish a buy).

The Mindset of Equality As A Reality

A recent study conducted by the Pew Research Center found that in 2018, women earned 85 percent of what men earned, based on an analysis of the median hourly wage for both part-time and full-time work daftar slot online. In 2017, the U.S. Census Bureau found that women earned 80 percent of what men earned when analyzing full-time wage data.

Many women have felt the effects of the gender gap during their careers, whether it was a pay dispute, a lost promotion or just a snide comment from a co-worker game judi slot. Even if your work environment champions equality, it’s not uncommon to encounter people who have faced some kind of discrimination, subtle or not, because of their gender.

It’s difficult to think this way when cases of gender inequality are talked about in the news and on social media every day. However, if women want to be viewed as equal in the workplace, they must stand their ground and demand the respect they deserve – and it starts by behaving as if the gap has been closed, said Paula Stephenson, director of marketing at Smoke’s Poutinerie.

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“I have noticed that if you act like there’s equality in the workplace, then there will be,” Stephenson said.

That’s not to say that people should pretend inequality doesn’t exist. Acknowledging the need for change is important, but more important are your actions and attitudes in the workplace. Encourage yourself and others, and don’t let perceived detriments rule the day.

“Being a working mom in the corporate world is a daily challenge,” Attuy said. Despite the struggle to find balance, she considers her proudest professional moment to be when she returned from maternity leave. She believes her simultaneous personal and career success has made her a stronger marketer.

Students Astronomer Uses Ingenious Method to Find Galactic Missing Matter

Astronomers have for the first time used distant galaxies as ‘scintillating pins’ to locate and identify a piece of the Milky Way’s missing matter.

For decades, scientists have been puzzled as to why they couldn’t account for all the matter in the universe as predicted by theory. While most of the universe’s mass is thought to be mysterious dark matter and dark energy, 5 percent is ‘normal matter’ that makes up stars, planets, asteroids, peanut butter, and butterflies. This is known as baryonic matter.

However, direct measurement has only accounted for about half the expected baryonic matter.

Yuanming Wang, a doctoral candidate in the School of Physics at the University of Sydney, has developed an ingenious method to help track down the missing matter. She has applied her technique to pinpoint a hitherto undetected stream of cold gas in the Milky Way about 10 light years from Earth. The cloud is about a trillion kilometers long and 10 billion kilometers wide but only weighing about the mass of our Moon.

The results, published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, offer a promising way for scientists to track down the Milky Way’s missing matter.

“We suspect that much of the ‘missing’ baryonic matter is in the form of cold gas clouds either in galaxies or between galaxies,” said Ms Wang, who is pursuing her PhD at the Sydney Institute for Astronomy.

“This gas is undetectable using conventional methods, as it emits no visible light of its own and is just too cold for detection via radio astronomy,” she said.

What the astronomers did is look for radio sources in the distant background to see how they ‘shimmered’.

“We found five twinkling radio sources on a giant line in the sky. Our analysis shows their light must have passed through the same cold clump of gas,” Ms Wang said.

Just as visible light is distorted as it passes through our atmosphere to give stars their twinkle, when radio waves pass through matter, it also affects their brightness. It was this ‘scintillation’ that Ms. Wang and her colleagues detected.

Dr. Artem Tuntsov, a co-author from Manly Astrophysics, said: “We aren’t quite sure what the strange cloud is, but one possibility is that it could be a hydrogen ‘snow cloud’ disrupted by a nearby star to form a long, thin clump of gas.”

Hydrogen freezes at about minus 260 degrees and theorists have proposed that some of the universe’s missing baryonic matter could be locked up in these hydrogen ‘snow clouds’. They are almost impossible to detect directly.

“However, we have now developed a method to identify such clumps of ‘invisible’ cold gas using background galaxies as pins,” Ms. Wang said.

Ms. Wang’s supervisor, Professor Tara Murphy, said: “This is a brilliant result for a young astronomer. We hope the methods trailblazed by Yuanming will allow us to detect more missing matter.”

The data to find the gas cloud was taken using the CSIRO’s Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) radio telescope in Western Australia.

Dr. Keith Bannister, Principal Research Engineer at CSIRO, said: “It is ASKAP’s wide field of view, seeing tens of thousands of galaxies in a single observation that allowed us to measure the shape of the gas cloud.”

Professor Murphy said: “This is the first time that multiple ‘scintillators’ have been detected behind the same cloud of cold gas. In the next few years, we should be able to use similar methods with ASKAP to detect a large number of such gas structures in our galaxy.”

Ms. Wang’s discovery adds to a growing suite of tools for astronomers in their hunt for the universe’s missing baryonic matter. This includes a method published last year by the late Jean-Pierre Macquart from Curtin University who used CSIRO’s ASKAP telescope to estimate a portion of matter in the intergalactic medium using fast radio bursts as ‘cosmic weigh stations.’

Ms. Wang and Professor Murphy’s research was done in collaboration with CSIRO, Manly Astrophysics, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the ARC Centre of Excellence for Gravitational Wave Discovery, OzGrav.

New Liquid Crystals Created That Resemble Solid Crytals

A team at the University of Colorado Boulder has designed new kinds of liquid crystals that mirror the complex structures of some solid crystals—a major step forward in building flowing materials that can match the colorful diversity of forms seen in minerals and gems, from lazulite to topaz.

The group’s findings, published on February 10, 2021, in the journal Nature, may one day lead to new types of smart windows and television or computer displays that can bend and control light like never before.

The results come down to a property of solid crystals that will be familiar to many chemists and gemologists: Symmetry.

Ivan Smalyukh, a professor in the Department of Physics at CU Boulder, explained that scientists categorize all known crystals into seven main classes, plus many more sub-classes—in part based on the “symmetry operations” of their internal atoms. In other words, how many ways can you stick an imaginary mirror inside of a crystal or rotate it and still see the same structure? Think of this classification system as Baskin-Robbins’ 32 flavors but for minerals.

To date, however, scientists haven’t been able to create liquid crystals—flowing materials that are found in most modern display technologies—that come in those same many flavors.

“We know everything about all the possible symmetries of solid crystals that we can make. There are 230 of them,” said Smalyukh, senior author of the new study who is also a fellow of the Renewable and Sustainable Energy Institute (RASEI) at CU Boulder. “When it comes to nematic liquid crystals, the kind in most displays, we only have a few that have been demonstrated so far.”

That is, until now.

Nematic Liquid Crystal
A traditional, “nematic” liquid crystal seen under the microscope. Credit: Smalyukh Lab

In their latest findings, Smalyukh and his colleagues came up with a way to design the first liquid crystals that resemble monoclinic and orthorhombic crystals—two of those seven main classes of solid crystals. The findings, he said, bring a bit more of order to the chaotic world of fluids.

“There are a lot of possible types of liquid crystals, but, so far, very few have been discovered,” Smalyukh said. “That is great news for students because there’s a lot more to find.”

Symmetry in action
To understand symmetry in crystals, first picture your body. If you place a giant mirror running down the middle of your face, you’ll see a reflection that looks (more or less) like the same person.

Solid crystals have similar properties. Cubic crystals, which include diamonds and pyrite, for example, are made up of atoms arranged in the shape of a perfect cube. They have a lot of symmetry operations.

“If you rotate those crystals by 90 or 180 degrees around many special axes, for example, all of the atoms stay in the right places,” Smalyukh said.

Monoclinic Liquid Crystal
Graphic showing the arrangement of the disk-shaped molecules in a monoclinic liquid crystal with two symmetries. Credit: Smalyukh Lab

But there are other types of crystals, too. The atoms inside monoclinic crystals, which include gypsum or lazulite, are arranged in a shape that looks like a slanted column. Flip or rotate these crystals all you want, and they still have only two distinct symmetries—one mirror plane and one axis of 180-degree rotation, or the symmetry that you can see by spinning a crystal around an axis and noticing that it looks the same every 180 degrees. Scientists call that a “low-symmetry” state.

Traditional liquid crystals, however, don’t display those kinds of complex structures. The most common liquid crystals, for example, are made up of tiny rod-shaped molecules. Under the microscope, they tend to line up like dry pasta noodles tossed into a pot, Smalyukh said.

“When things can flow they don’t usually exhibit such low symmetries,” Smalyukh said.

Order in liquids
He and his colleagues wanted to see if they could change that. To begin, the team mixed together two different kinds of liquid crystals. The first was the common class made up of rod-shaped molecules. The second was made up of particles shaped like ultra-thin disks.

When the researchers brought them together, they noticed something strange: Under the right conditions in the lab, those two types of crystals pushed and squeezed each other, changing their orientation and arrangement. The end result was a nematic liquid crystal fluid with symmetry that looks a lot like that of a solid monoclinic crystal. The molecules inside displayed some symmetry, but only one mirror plane and one axis of 180-degree rotation.

The group had created, in other words, a material with the mathematical properties of a lazulite or gypsum crystal—but theirs could flow like a fluid.

“We’re asking a very fundamental question: What are the ways that you can combine order and fluidity in a single material?” Smalyukh said.

And, the team’s creations are dynamic: If you heat the liquid crystals up or cool them down, for example, you can morph them into a rainbow of different structures, each with their own properties, said Haridas Mundoor, lead author of the new paper. That’s pretty handy for engineers.

“This offers different avenues that can modify display technologies, which may enhance the energy efficiency in performance of devices like smart phones,” said Mundoor, a postdoctoral research associate at CU Boulder.

He and his colleagues are still nowhere near making liquid crystals that can replicate the full spectrum of solid crystals. But the new paper gets them closer than ever before—good news for fans of shiny things everywhere.

Metal Fuels – One of The Most Promising Fuels for the Future

Did you know that in microgravity we are preparing one of the most promising fuels for the future?

Microgravity is helping to find answers and models to refine the processes needed to efficiently burn solid fuel like iron dust. Are we witnessing the raise of a new “Iron Age”? Could we use metal powders instead of petrol to fuel our cars?

Solid fuels are used for burning a match, lighting a sparkler on New Year’s Eve as well as the fuel inside the boosters of Ariane and of other rockets. But metals such as iron can also burn, in powder form, and are entirely smokeless and carbon free.

Metals could be produced using clean energy, such as from solar cells or wind turbines. That electricity is stored as chemical energy in the metal powder at energy densities that are competitive with fossil fuels. This has the potential to reduce greenhouse gasses emission globally, but a barrier to implementing this technology is the development of combustion systems that can efficiently burn the metal fuels, which requires a solid understanding of their combustion physics.

To understand the physics of metal fuel combustion, a cluster of iron powder needs to be suspended for about 30 seconds, the time needed to observe and study how a flame propagates. Researchers used sounding rockets and parabolic flights to run experiments in weightlessness and to validate existing models, yielding promising results.

The density of iron particles and the composition of gases in the combustion chamber are essential parameters, like in a petrol car engine. Microgravity allows for the study of the laws of flame propagation, to optimize parameters in industrial burner designs, and reduce impact on the environment.

These space experiments also help us understand similar phenomena, such as the spreading of contagious microbes and forest fires.

In a vote of confidence for the technique a student team at TU Eindhoven in The Netherlands worked with industrial partners to design a metal combustion facility now installed at Swinkels Family Brewers, subsidized by the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, used to produce steam for the brewing process.

Vaporized Cruts of Earth-Like Planets Discovered in Dying Stars

Remnants of planets with Earth-like crusts have been discovered in the atmospheres of four nearby white dwarf stars by University of Warwick astronomers, offering a glimpse of the planets that may have once orbited them up to billions of years ago.

Observations of lithium and potassium around white dwarf stars point to remains of rocky planet crusts
Analysis by astronomers led by University of Warwick shows chemical composition of crusts is very similar to Earth’s continental crust
The outer layers of the white dwarfs contain up to 300,000 gigatonnes of rocky debris, which includes up to 60 gigatonnes of lithium and 3,000 gigatonnes of potassium
These white dwarfs are among the oldest stars in our galaxy, and could host one of the oldest planetary systems discovered so far
Remnants of planets with Earth-like crusts have been discovered in the atmospheres of four nearby white dwarf stars by University of Warwick astronomers, offering a glimpse of the planets that may have once orbited them up to billions of years ago.

These crusts are from the outer layers of rocky planets similar to Earth and Mars and could give astronomers greater insights into the chemistry of the planets that these dying stars once hosted.

The discovery is reported on February 11, 2021, in the journal Nature Astronomy and includes one of the oldest planetary systems seen by astronomers so far.

The University of Warwick-led team was analyzing data from the European Space Agency’s Gaia telescope of over 1,000 nearby white dwarf stars when they came across an unusual signal from one particular white dwarf. The researchers at the University of Warwick received funding from the European Research Council and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

They used spectroscopy to analyze the light from the star at different wavelengths, which allows them to detect when elements in the star’s atmosphere are absorbing light at different colors and determine what elements those are and how much is present. They also inspected the 30,000 white dwarf spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey published over the last 20 years.

The signal matched the wavelength of lithium and the astronomers soon discovered three more white dwarfs with the same signal, one of which was also observed with potassium in its atmosphere. By comparing the amount of lithium and potassium with the other elements they detected — sodium and calcium — they found that the ratio of elements matched the chemical composition of the crust of rocky planets like Earth and Mars, if those crusts and been vaporized and mixed within the gaseous outer layers of the star for 2 million years.

Lead author Dr. Mark Hollands from the University of Warwick’s Department of Physics said: “In the past, we’ve seen all sorts of things like mantle and core material, but we’ve not had a definitive detection of planetary crust. Lithium and potassium are good indicators of crust material, they are not present in high concentrations in the mantle or core.

“Now we know what chemical signature to look for to detect these elements, we have the opportunity to look at a huge number of white dwarfs and find more of these. Then we can look at the distribution of that signature and see how often we detect these planetary crusts and how that compares to our predictions.”

The outer layers of the white dwarfs contain up to 300,000 gigatonnes of rocky debris, which includes up to 60 gigatonnes of lithium and 3,000 gigatonnes of potassium, equivalent to a 60km sphere of similar density to Earth’s crust. The amount of crust material detected is similar in mass to that of the asteroids we see in our own solar system, leading the astronomers to believe that what they are seeing around all four stars is material broken off from a planet, rather than an entire planet itself.

Previous observations of white dwarfs have found evidence of material from the inner core and mantle of planets, but no definitive evidence of crust material. Crust is a small fraction of a planet’s mass and the elements detected in this study are only detectable when the star is very cool. White dwarfs are in the dying phase of their lifecycle, as they have burnt out their fuel and cool over billions of years. These four white dwarfs are thought to have burnt out their fuel up to 10 billion years ago and could be among the oldest white dwarfs formed in our galaxy.

Co-author Dr Pier-Emmanuel Tremblay from the University of Warwick said: “In one case, we are looking at planet formation around a star that was formed in the Galactic halo, 11-12.5 billion years ago, hence it must be one of the oldest planetary systems known so far. Another of these systems formed around a short-lived star that was initially more than four times the mass of the Sun, a record-breaking discovery delivering important constraints on how fast planets can form around their host stars.”

Among the oldest of these white dwarfs, one is 70% more massive than average and so its huge mass would normally cause any material in its atmosphere to disappear relatively quickly, leading the astronomers to the conclusion that it must be replenishing the crust material from a surrounding debris disc. Furthermore, the astronomers detected more infrared light than expected for the white dwarf alone, which indicates a disc being heated by its star and then re-radiated at longer wavelengths.

Dr. Hollands adds: “As we understand it, rocky planet formation happens in a similar way in different planetary systems. Initially, they are formed from similar material composition to the star, but over time those materials separate and you end up with different chemical compositions in different parts of the planets. We can see that at some point that these objects have undergone differentiation, where the composition is different to the starting composition of the star.

“It is now well understood that most normal stars like the Sun harbor planets, but now there’s the opportunity to look at the frequency of different types of material as well.”

Researchers Turn Coal Powder Into Valuable Nano-Graphite in Microwave Oven

Using copper foil, glass containers and a conventional household microwave oven, University of Wyoming researchers have demonstrated that pulverized coal powder can be converted into higher-value nano-graphite.

The discovery is another step forward in the effort to find alternative uses for Wyoming’s Powder River Basin coal, at a time when demand for coal to generate electricity is declining due to concerns about climate change.

In a paper published in the journal Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects, the UW researchers report that they created an environment in a microwave oven to successfully convert raw coal powder into nano-graphite, which is used as a lubricant and in items ranging from fire extinguishers to lithium ion batteries. This “one-step method with metal-assisted microwave treatment” is a new approach that could represent a simple and relatively inexpensive coal-conversion technology.

“This method provides a new route to convert abundant carbon sources to high-value materials with ecological and economic benefits,” wrote the research team, led by Associate Professor TeYu Chien, in UW’s Department of Physics and Astronomy.

Others involved in the project were Professor Jinke Tang, in the Department of Physics and Astronomy; Associate Professor Brian Leonard, in the Department of Chemistry; Professor Maohong Fan, in the Department of Petroleum Engineering and the School of Energy Resources; graduate students Rabindra Dulal, of Nepal, Joann Hilman, of Laramie, Chris Masi, of Syracuse, N.Y., and Teneil Schumacher, of Buffalo; and postdoctoral researchers Gaurab Rimal, of Nepal, and Bang Xu, of China.

While previous research has shown that microwaves can be used to reduce the moisture content of coal and remove sulfur and other minerals, most such methods require specific chemical pretreatment of the coal. In their experiment, the UW researchers simply ground raw Powder River Basin coal into powder.

That powder was then placed on copper foil and sealed in glass containers with a gas mixture of argon and hydrogen, before being placed in a microwave oven. A conventional microwave oven was chosen because of convenience and because it provided the desired levels of radiation.

“By cutting the copper foil into a fork shape, the sparks were induced by the microwave radiation, generating an extremely high temperature of more than 1,800 degrees Fahrenheit within a few seconds,” says Masi, lead author of the paper. “This is why you shouldn’t place a metal fork inside a microwave oven.”

The sparks caused by the microwaves generated the high temperatures necessary to transform the coal powder into polycrystalline graphite, with the copper foil and hydrogen gas also contributing to the process.

While the experiment included microwave durations ranging from 3 to 45 minutes, the optimal duration was found to be 15 minutes.

The researchers say this new method of coal conversion could be refined and performed at a larger scale to yield both a higher quality and quantity of nano-graphite materials.

“Finite graphite reserves and environmental concerns for the graphite extraction procedures make this method of converting coal to graphite a great alternative source of graphite production,” the scientists wrote.